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Eye Examination

A person experiencing eye symptoms should see a doctor. However, because some eye disorders cause few or no symptoms in their early stages, the eyes should be checked by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist on a regular basis (every 1 to 2 years, or more frequently if there is an eye condition). An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders (both surgical and nonsurgical). An optometrist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of vision or refractive problems (refractive errors).

The initial diagnosis of eye disorders is based on the individual’s symptoms, the appearance of the eyes, and the results of an examination.

An ophthalmologist examines the eye, the area around it, and possibly other parts of the body, depending on the suspected cause. An eye examination typically includes refraction, visual field testing, ophthalmoscopy (also known as funduscopy), a slit-lamp examination, and tonometry. The examiner can determine how the cranial nerves supplying the muscles that move the eyes (called extraocular muscles) function by having the person look in all directions.


An Inside Look at the Eye

An Inside Look at the Eye



Examiners use refraction to assess focusing errors. Refraction is used to diagnose problems with visual acuity (vision sharpness) caused by refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Acuity is typically measured on a scale that compares a person’s vision at 20 feet (about 6 meters) to that of someone with perfect vision. Thus, a person with 20/20 vision sees objects 20 feet away with the same clarity as a person with normal vision, whereas a person with 20/200 vision sees at 20 feet only as clearly as a person with perfect vision sees at 200 feet (about 61 meters).

The Snellen chart (eye chart) is a large card or lighted box that displays rows of letters in decreasing sizes. The chart is read from a standard distance. The size of the row of letters that the person can read determines the degree of visual acuity. For those who are unable to read, a modified chart can be used in which the letters are represented by an upper case “E” that is rotated at random. People are asked to describe which way the “E” is facing. If a person cannot read anything from a chart, the examiner may ask if the person can count the examiner’s fingers or move the examiner’s hand. Examiners also assess near vision by having the subject read a standard near card or newsprint from a distance of about 14 inches (35 centimeters).


Automated refraction

Is performed with a device that determines the refractive error of the eye by measuring how light changes when it enters the eye. The person sits in front of the autorefractor, a beam of light is emitted from the device, and the eye’s response is measured. The machine uses this information to calculate the lens prescription required to correct the person’s refractive error. This measurement takes only a few seconds.

A phoropter

Is a device that is commonly used in conjunction with a Snellen chart to determine the best corrective lenses for a person undergoing an eyeglass or contact lens evaluation. The phoropter includes a full range of corrective lenses, allowing the user to compare various levels of correction while viewing the chart. Before prescribing lenses, the eye doctor usually uses the phoropter to refine the information obtained from the autorefractor.


To get your eye examined, visit Accra Specialist Eye Hospital – Voted the Best Eye Hospital in Ghana. Visit Accra’s Finest Eyecare Facility today!  Our Services include are  Laser Eye Surgeries,  Micro Incision Cataract, Surgery (Phaco), Retina Surgeries, Phaco (Cataract), Gluacoma Surgeries, Cornea Surgery – Transplant , Oculoplastic Surgery and Child Eye Care Services.


We're an eye specialist hospital dedicated to providing the best care for you and your eyes. At Accra Specialist Eye Hospital, we are committed to delivering accessible and comprehensive eye care, to the highest possible standards. Our Expertise & Services Offered are Laser Eye Surgeries, Micro Incision Cataract, Surgery (Phaco), Retina Surgeries, Phaco (Cataract), Gluacoma Surgeries, Cornea Surgeru - Transplant , Oculoplastic Surgery and Child Eye Care Services. We're located at Tantra Hill - Accra.