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Glaucoma is a group of conditions that cause optic nerve damage. The optic nerve is located at the back of the eye and helps in visualization by transmitting visual signals from the eye to the brain. Blindness could result from optic nerve damage. The optic nerve is frequently damaged in glaucoma due to unusually high pressure exerted on it. This optic nerve damage could eventually lead to blindness.

Glaucoma is also the leading cause of adult blindness. In a few types of glaucoma, the patient has no or few symptoms. The effect is so consistent that it would not be noticed until the condition was severe.

Symptoms of Glaucoma.

  • Loss of vision
  • Blurry vision
  • Persistent headache
  • Eye redness
  • Stomach upset, nausea and vomiting
  • Pain in the eye
  • Early Presbyopia


Causes of Glaucoma

  • Build-up of aqueous humor inside the eye
  • Genetic reasons
  • Birth defects
  • Blunt or chemical injury
  • Acute eye infection
  • Blockage by blood vessels inside the eye
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • In rare cases, previous eye surgeries


Types of Glaucoma

  • Congenital Glaucoma
  • Lens Induced Glaucoma
  • Malignant Glaucoma
  • Secondary Glaucoma


Glaucoma Risk Factors

You are more likely to develop glaucoma if you:

  • Are you over 60 years of age
  • Have high internal eye pressure
  • Have a family member diagnosed with glaucoma
  • Have certain conditions like diabetes, heart conditions, sickle cell anaemia and high blood pressure.
  • Have thin corneas
  • Have extreme conditions of nearsightedness or farsightedness
  • Have had eye injuries, surgeries
  • Taking corticosteroid medications for a long time


Glaucoma Prevention

  • To have eye checkups often
  • To be aware of your family’s medical history
  • Keeping fit and eating healthy
  • Protecting your eyes while performing tasks that could cause injuries to the eye


Glaucoma Diagnosis

The doctor would review the patient’s medical history and perform a comprehensive eye examination. They may also choose to conduct additional tests. These examinations are quick and painless.

Among these tests are the following:

Tonometry or measuring the internal eye pressure

  • Looking for optic nerve damage by dilating and imaging
  • They may also do a visual field test to look for blind spots in the eye
  • A pachymetry test could also be performed to find out the corneal thickness
  • Gonioscopy for examining the drainage angle between the iris and the cornea


Glaucoma Treatment

Depending on the type of glaucoma, the doctor may choose to treat it with one or more of the methods listed below.

Eye drops and Oral Medication 

Eye drops either aid in fluid drainage or reduce fluid production, assisting in the reduction of eye pressure. Eye drops may have some side effects, which your doctor will inform you of. If you are prescribed eye drops, tell your doctor about your current medications and allergies. Beta-blocker or carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs, which function similarly to eye drops, may also be prescribed.

Laser surgery 

Laser surgery would help increase fluid flow in the case of open-angle glaucoma. In the case of angle-closure glaucoma, procedures such as Trabeculoplasty (opening of the drainage area), Iridotomy (creating a small opening in the iris to allow fluid to flow freely), and Cyclophotocoagulation would be used to stop the fluid blockage (Making the fluid production lesser).


To relieve eye pressure, the doctor creates a new channel to allow the fluid to flow more freely.

Although glaucoma is not completely curable, it can be managed and complete vision loss avoided. You could treat it before it worsens. If you have glaucoma symptoms or have been diagnosed with it, contact us right away to be treated by some of the most capable hands! Make an appointment right now.


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We're an eye specialist hospital dedicated to providing the best care for you and your eyes. At Accra Specialist Eye Hospital, we are committed to delivering accessible and comprehensive eye care, to the highest possible standards. Our Expertise & Services Offered are Laser Eye Surgeries, Micro Incision Cataract, Surgery (Phaco), Retina Surgeries, Phaco (Cataract), Gluacoma Surgeries, Cornea Surgeru - Transplant , Oculoplastic Surgery and Child Eye Care Services. We're located at Tantra Hill - Accra.