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Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes retinopathy occurs when high blood sugar levels damage blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe form, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, when damaged blood vessels become blocked and new, abnormal blood vessels grow in the retina.

Symptoms of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy symptoms include

  • blurred vision/loss of vision
  • seeing floaters or dark spots
  • Pain, redness
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Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Factors

  • Diabetes: The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely he or she is to develop diabetic retinopathy, particularly if the diabetes is poorly controlled.
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  • Medical conditions: other medical conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol increase the risk.
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  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women face a higher risk for developing diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.
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  • Heredity
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  • Sedentary lifestyle
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  • Diet
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  • Obesity
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Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention

Diabetic retinopathy cannot always be avoided. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, you must do the following:

  • Get regular eye exams and physical checkups
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  • Keep your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure at healthy levels.
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  • Be mindful of any changes you may notice in your vision, and discuss them 
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  • with your doctor.
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  • Stop smoking
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  • Regular exercise
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  • Timely treatment and appropriate follow ups are important.
 
 

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

Visual acuity testing: This eye chart test measures a person’s vision

Tonometry: This test measures pressure inside the eye.

Pupil dilation: Drops placed on the eye’s surface widen the pupil, allowing a physician to examine the retina and optic nerve.

Comprehensive dilated eye exam: It allows the doctor to check the retina for:

  • Changes to blood vessels or leaking blood vessels and new vessels
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  • Fatty deposits
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  • Swelling of the macula (Diabetic macular edema)
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  • Changes in the lens
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  • Damage to nerve tissue

 

Optical coherence tomography (OCT): It uses light waves to produce images of the retina to assess the amount of fluid.

Fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA): During this test, your doctor will inject a dye into your arm, allowing them to monitor how the blood flows in your eye. They’ll take pictures of the dye circulating inside your eye to see which vessels are blocked, leaking, or broken.

B Scan Ultrasonography: When there is no view of the retina due to vitreous haemorrhage, ultrasound waves are used to image the eye.

 

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Complications

Vitreous hemorrhage; The new blood vessels are fragile and may bleed into the eye. If the amount of bleeding is minor, you may only see a few floaters. In severe cases, blood can fill the eye and impair vision.

Retinal detachment; The abnormal blood vessels can cause scar tissue, which can pull on the retina and cause retinal detachment.

New blood vessels may form in the front of your eye and invade the drainage area, resulting in increased eye pressure. This pressure has the potential to harm the nerve that sends images from your eye to your brain.

Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or both can eventually cause total vision loss.

 

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

Laser :  Widespread blood vessel growth in the retina, which occurs in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, can be treated by creating a pattern of scattered laser burns across the retina. This causes abnormal blood vessels to shrink and disappear. With this procedure, some side vision may be lost in order to safeguard central vision.

Medical management: Injection of anti VEGF medication into the eye may be used in selected patients with bleeding into the eye.

Surgical management: Vitrectomy involves removing scar tissue and blood from the vitreous fluid of the eye.

 

To get your eye examined, visit Accra Specialist Eye Hospital – Voted the Best Eye Hospital in Ghana. Visit Accra’s Finest Eyecare Facility today!  Our Services include are  Laser Eye Surgeries,  Micro Incision Cataract, Surgery (Phaco), Retina Surgeries, Phaco (Cataract), Gluacoma Surgeries, Cornea Surgery – Transplant , Oculoplastic Surgery and Child Eye Care Services.

We're an eye specialist hospital dedicated to providing the best care for you and your eyes. At Accra Specialist Eye Hospital, we are committed to delivering accessible and comprehensive eye care, to the highest possible standards. Our Expertise & Services Offered are Laser Eye Surgeries, Micro Incision Cataract, Surgery (Phaco), Retina Surgeries, Phaco (Cataract), Gluacoma Surgeries, Cornea Surgeru - Transplant , Oculoplastic Surgery and Child Eye Care Services. We're located at Tantra Hill - Accra.